Recommendations for removal of Unemployment
I am expressing my views regarding removal of unemployment from India. My analysis is based on the census report of 2001. As the condition has not much improved, it would be similar effective in current scenario too.
As per census report for the year 2001, “Unemployment is a condition where an adult who is willing to work is not getting the opportunity to work”.
We need not to discuss what is unemployment and why do we need to remove it. The matter has already been much debated. Therefore I am only suggesting the ways & means to remove the unemployment and it’s consequences.
I am writing the comments of planning commission according to who “Maximum people are involved in service sector in developed countries, whereas in developing countries like India agriculture has provided more employment. It is so because industrial and service sectors are not fully developed in these countries”.
As per census report of 2001, 40 crores people in India comes under employed category. Out of which 31.3 crores are main worker and around 8.9 crores are marginal worker. The people who have job for more than 183 days or 6 months are considered as main worker and who could manage less than 6 months job are marginal workers. Out of 31.3 cr. Main workers 96 lakhs are Govt. employees, 1.94 cr. are engaged in public sector and 87 laks are employed in private sector. Armed forces personnel are not included in this statistics.
The unemployment percentage in 2010 is 10% means more than 10 crores people are unemployed.
As per current status the authorized official working hours are 8 hrs. On one side, where in Govt. sector employees are not engaged even six hours in a day, in private sector employees are forcibly engaged to work for either 12 hours or enforced to do very hard labour within these 8 hours. When a person is engaged upto 12 hours in his office, it can be imagine how difficult it would be to manage his home, his family, his health, culture, recreation and other social liabilities. Whereas I personally feel that all these things are equally important in life as job and there should be a balance in between them.
In both Govt. and private sectors, there is a system for lunch. In private sector where the period of half hour for lunch is strictly followed or even reduced, in Govt. sector though the time allotment is same but it usually extended and reached upto 2 hours unofficially. Office hours is also utilised by the employee for medical, canteen and other facilities provided by the Govt. as they believe that at both places working hours are same, hence they are bound to utilise office hour for these works. Though the 5 days working concept has been adopted keeping in mind these things.
On one side where Govt. employees are misusing facilities provided by Govt. on the other side in private sector employees are being exploited by forced to work late hours and both situations is not amicable.
The hefty salaries are the reason behind utilisation of precious things and other extravaganza. In their day to day life luxury has become their need; whereas on the other side the situation still exist where people are badly in need of a single pie or a stale roti for their survival. They are spending life in miseries and poverty. Where 40 crores people are poor and 26% people are living life below poverty line. Even the then Priminister has shown his concern over the hefty salaries being paid in private sectors.
The priority of a Govt. should be to first fulfill minimum basic requirement of his citizen. Whatever is the minimum basic requirement should reach to it’s each and every citizen first and then luxury or other comforts can be given priority. In today’s scenario, where a sect or class of people are getting almost all the leisure and comfort and there are another class who is getting nothing. They are living in a pathetic condition and a wretched life. Government provide accommodation, medical facility, pension and other amenities and facilities to the government servants, the persons who are paid employees and intellectuals, who are able to acquire these facilities for themselves as they are getting a regular income. Hence I feel if Govt. is paying salary to Govt. employees he need not to pay attention on other amenities and facilities but can arrange the same for the lower class in unemployed category people. The Govt. demarcated such rural and urban areas and people who are living a life below poverty line, they can be provided free medication, food, homes and other minimum requirements for a life to live.
The principals of socialism which is followed in the Govt. services are for the period when a county is well affluent and can provide all basic amenities to all it’s citizens. You have seen such hunger stricken, downtrodden faces but perhaps have never felt their woes. Who are living in the same society with us concealing their hunger and pain? We need to give a little smile on those faces. And I have tried the same in this new administrative system.
In the current scenario, the working hours for Govt. or private services are assigned as 8 hours. In my new system it can be reduced to 6 hours only. Working in all the public and private sector shall be reduced into two shifts of 6 hours each. This will enhance the daily working hour in India from 8 to 12 hours, but pressure on one person will be for only 6 hours each day. Half hour of Lunch or tea break period can be abolished and this time can be utilized for exchange of employees. In this 6 hour he will only work and can go for essential nature’s call only. This system will reduce the unutilized idle time. I feel a person can be deployed on work for six hours without any break.
The five days week regulation shall remain as it is in all other sectors except emergency services and for that employees shall either be paid extra bucks or they shall be given leave in lieu of excess days on some other day. Private and public both sectors shall follow this five days week system strictly. This will not effect the working hour of a week. Where the working hours in a week are 48 in current scenario, it would increase to 60 hour per week in new scenario. This system will also help the common people to get the facilities 12 hours in a day instead of 8 hours.
In this new system the working hours shall be like this. First shift shall start by 7:30 a.m and end at 1:30 p.m. the period between 1.30 to 2.00 o’clock will be utilize for exchange of workers and another shift of 6 hours will start from 2.00 p.m to 8 p.m. This time frame may be changed according to timing of states like Gujarat and Shillong or as per necessity of employers as in private sectors from 10 .00 a.m to 10 p.m. Ensuring following details are of utmost importance.
- All the workers shall be on their respective seats well in advance or before the timings given. Biometric system can be adopted to ensure timing and late may be marked accordingly. Instead of half day CL salary may be deducted as per late hour basis. Government or private sectors timings may not be utilized for exchange of workers/employees.
- The person who has been employed for the first shift may not be employed for second shifts too.
- Lunch, tea break, games and other cultural activities will not be allowed in office premises or officially. Such activity on working place shall be banned. People may indulge themselves anywhere outside in these activities after office hours.
- Except a few relaxations as maternity leave at the birth of upto two children, no other relaxation may be provided to women employees. They shall be treated at par as male employees.
In today’s scenario where employees are barred from taking part in political procession, political activities, private practices, business or other similar activities, such restrictions may be debarred or removed. Any worker can indulge himself in any other activity after office working hour like other citizens.
The benefits of this system can be assessed as follows in terms of statistics. In a wider prospect the number of employed individuals is around 40 crores as per census of 2001. Where as the people of age group from 15 to 60 are 58.7 crores. If 17.8 cr. of self employed people are reduced from this employed strength, it arrives at 22.2 cr. in old system and double of it i.e. 44.4 cr. in new system. Whereas no. of person between 15 to 60 age group are 58.7 Cr. And if these 17.8 Cr. self employed are reduces from this number it arrives at 40 crore. It means where there was shortage of approximate 18 Cr. employments in old system; there would be a surplus of 4.4 cr. employment in new system. The result would be that all the individual fit or eligible for employment between the age of 15 to 60 would automatically be involved in some employment. Though there may be some marginal works but there would not be any unemployment.
And If 8.9 cr. Marginal works may again be reduced from this number, then also the number of main workers which was 31.3 cr. as per census of 2001 will increase to 62.6 crores. Whereas, as per same census number of people between the age group 20 to 55 are 45.08 crores. But as out of 31.3 cr. employed more than half i.e. 17.84 cr. are self employed i.e. agriculture, self established business etc. which can not be divided into two shifts of 6 hours, still if the remaining 14 cr. employment could be divided in two shifts it would create 28 cr. employment, whereas if out of 45 cr., 17.8 cr. Self employed are reduced, 27.24 cr. Persons can be assimilated in the group of main workers, which means all the individuals of 20 to 55 will be main worker who would be employed at least six months in a year as per the definition. As such all the person fit or eligible for employment can be provided employment as main worker. One another thing is there to keep in notice that the persons who come under non-worker category shall also be reduced from the total individual who require employment.
The most unsatisfied group of unemployed persons are the people who are graduate, whose number as per 2001 census is. 3.76 crores. Out of which 3.26 Cr. are graduates and above, and 50 lakhs are technically qualified. Whereas the no. of clerks, administrative workers, executives, managers, professionally and technically qualified workers as per planning commission report 1999-2000 reaches at 2.28 crores. If we adopt new system then no. of employment in this group became 4.56 cr. resulting in employment for all the graduates and above. Still there would be some vacancy which can be fulfilled from the literates of 3.75 cr. secondary and higher secondary unemployed persons.
As per planning commission report 1999-2000, which is bases on 55th round of NSS survey, 2.66 Cr. persons are unemployed which is 7% of total number of fit for employment persons. Whereas there are 4.1 cr. Persons enrolled in employment exchange who desire employment. It is so because 2.81 Cr. persons enrolled in employment exchange do not have employment for more than 6 months, means they are not main worker and have also enrolled themselves in employment exchange. Main workers are those who are employed for more than 183 days. There are many of them who are self employed in urban areas and still needs a permanent job. This new system shall provide most of the persons a permanent job so as they can get a regular income and shall be able to live without worry. In the remaining time these main workers shall indulge themselves as freelancers or do a part time job in those uncertain job sector which are nowadays being done by marginal workers for their development and for extra achievement.
The number of regular salaried employees as per 1999-2000 report of planning commission based on 55th round of NSSO is 4.68 crores and when we would adopt new system it would increased to 9.36 crores. Means there would be 9.36 cr. Regular salaried employees. Where as today’s no. of people who need employment are 4.1 crores. Hence the number exactly fits in no of total regular salaried workers that would be obtained in new system. The total no. of person above secondary is also 7.5 cr. It means all the individuals above secondary shall be regular salaried worker.
I know that the children who are working between the age group of 15 to 18 are poor and illiterate. I would not therefore insist but if they can be provided better education and living standard, then all 54 lakhs jobs occupied by these child labours shall directly be available for the age group of 20 to 60 years. What I have felt that the persons between the age group 55 to 60 are not energetic enough to handle the work efficiently. Hence I feel the age group for employment can be reduced to 55 or 58 years. If a person is physically fit and has a good report through out his services he may be given an extension of 2 to 3 years. This shall increase efficiency in Govt. and other offices. Hence the new retirement age may starts from 55 years and all such jobs related to this age group shall be available for the youth of age group 20 to 55 yrs. These are the person competent enough for work, they actually need jobs and they are the persons who are struggling with the mental tension of unemployment.
If you think deeply, you will observe that in small towns and cities regular salaried workers are only considered as employed. They thought other self employed works as Majboori if it is not a well established business. Such people live a wretched, tense and depressed life throughout, though being involved in a self employed business. Whereas government doesn’t think in this manner. If a person in any manner is in a job and he is earning a few, he is employed for government. My new system shall provide more jobs in a satisfactory manner.
Today where a few persons are getting hefty salary, others are sitting idle unemployed though they have same qualification and ability. This new system will increase the number of jobs to double and more and more people shall be a satisfied regular salaried employee. In this new system salary of an employee can either be reduced to half of it’s previous salary or can be reduced in proportion to hours. But the minimum wages fixed by the govt. shall remain same. Thus the workers at lower level shall not be affected but the salaries of employees who are getting hefty salaries may divide in two persons. This adoption shall then not affect monetary burden on Govt. or private enterprises. A few can raise this question that this system shall definitely increase monetary burden on Govt. and workers shall became dearer, which shall consecutively affect the economy. In reply to this question I would like to say that it shall not badly affect the economy and still the wages of labourers shall be less dear than the international standard. This system shall only improve the condition of workers working on lower level and that should be the priority of a socialite government. The govt. is expending a lot of money on Rojgar Guarantee Yojna and other schemes, that money can be converted towards this side. Hence the total expense would perhaps remain same and everybody shall be employed. Govt. then need not to care for those, who she is caring at present scenario being unemployed. In every 10 years a Govt. increases salary of it’s worker by introducing Pay commission. I have increased this salary by reduce the working hours.
In future, if economic condition of the country improves, a Govt. may consider for hefty payments for these 6 working hours. I believe that most of the countrymen should be employed; they should be involved in some work daily to earn. There should be a feeling in every citizen that he is contributing in national development; they are in this world for some meaningful purpose. In this new system though they shall earn less but some means of earning shall always be available for them. Terrorism, Domestic violence and many unemployment related problems shall also subdue.
In this manner I have freed a person from the worries of hunger and provide them a way for their more development by providing them free time. He can involve himself in other business or work of his interest to earn more for their livelihood and development.
In today’s scenario an employed person prefers to marry an employed girl and this tendency is increasing day by day. In this scenario where some people are getting rich to richer, there is other and a lot of persons who are in thrust of a single penny and becoming poorer. This new system will definitely increase this tendency but more and more people and families shall be earning class, satisfied and happy. And in old system where one family was fed in new system two families may be fed in same expanse.
Most of the Govt. and intellectuals thought that girls in a society should be empowered, should develop and should be at par with the boys. But this would be a day dream until girls would not be empowered on economic basis. Until, they are unemployed and dependent. Expecting such broad changes or concept of women empowerment in previous system or without making women independent is meaningless. This scenario will change in new system and more and more women shall be employed and self dependent. This system is more beneficial for women than men. This system will improve condition of women manifold.
In the current scenario, when husband and wife both are employed, then managing home is a difficult task. When both are out of home at the same time, they have to depend upon others for looking after their child or home. The future of such children depends upon helicopter parenting. In this new system if husband would be in office, wife can look after his child at home and in another shift when wife would be at work, husband can look after his child at home. And this practice of working of spouses in different shifts should be adopted in all sectors, either public or private. This will help in full and appropriate development of child. Then home and service both can suitably be managed. The lady employee who made this reason as excuse can no longer leave office early on this behalf.
In current scenario, in Govt. offices people leave offices early or in between office hour for canteen, bank, medical treatment and for other private affairs, because as per their arguments the timing of other offices are same. Hence leaving office for an hour or two for such work is justified. They are helpless. In this new system when all offices shall remain open 12 hours a person can attend his office in one 6 hour and can do other personnel work in another 6 hours. As such this new system shall reduce the wastage of Govt. working hours.
I have seen such private institutions where employees are bound or forced to work hard either for 12 hour or beyond the regular duty hour. They got only half hour break in between. In this new system, howsoever an employer is cruel; he could not enforce his employee for excessive work. If he ensures regular and hard work within these 6 hours, it would not badly affect an employee’s health or mental condition. Even I would recommend for hard work during these six hours without any undue relaxation. As such the exploitation of employees can be reduced in this new system. Such people can give more time to their families.
If a Govt. feels insecure in terms of accumulation of wealth by an employee, I am giving you a remedy. This remedy can be applied in current scenario too. Every individual shall provide details of his wealth and property itself to the govt. every year either from his birth (by parents) or from his age of 18 years (the age of voting). If a person does not provide detail, his property would be considered as minimum property required for livelihood assigned by the government. Every year a person has to revise details of his property and wealth, if there is any change. In this scenario if a person lost his wealth or property or gone theft, whose detail is not available with government, shall not be searched by police or compensate by govt. but in lieu of such complaint that person would be punished for concealing the truth or wealth and property. Govt. can also raid to find out such properties and if found excess property that can be included in Govt. treasury with a punishment to owner. Even In current scenario people or employee accumulates extra wealth and in absence of strict adherence of rules and law Govt. is helpless to restrict such corruption.
This new system will help labour class of India significantly. He can earn similar wages for only the first half of work. He would be free to utilize his skill for another half some where else like agriculture and can earn more. Through this system I have tried to fulfill the appetite of a person in one way and through another hand he can explore the opportunities for his development. It can be possible that the labour of remote area may not be as benefited as expected, still if this system if adopted and shall be popularize, they shall demand extra wages for same work, and thus it will increase their regular income.
Those people shall come forward for this job who are either marginal worker or unemployed or not satisfied with his job being a regular worker. The vacancy of marginal work that shall available on the place of these employees or the employment raised by Govt. through their policies that will be occupied by these regular workers after their routine job/working hour. But in this new scenario they would not be in mental tension or with a feeling of looser. They shall perform that marginal works with more skillfully, with more interest and confidence which shall give a better result. Beside, the 50 lakhs technical worker can involve themselves in some kind of business of their own interest, which shall result in more economic development of India.
I feel why a person who have similar ability should be kept afar with the similar pride as a employed person obtain in this society just because he could not be able to achieve any Govt. job and forced to work a job of salesperson or other non regular works. Isn’t it better that both the individual can be involve as regular salaried worker and in remaining time they do a part time job of a sales man, insurance agent or other marginal or amateur work and contribute in development of nation.
In current scenario if a person is employed, neither he has permission nor enough time to do business and can ensure his development. And the person who is unemployed , who is earning nothing or just for his livelihood, how can he be expected to run a good business and in a condition when his first priority is to earn for his livelihood, when he can not free himself from this tension, when his self esteem and self confidence is on stake. How then, he can be expected to perform better just on the basis of a little loan provided by the Govt. to start a small business? How can he be confident on the basis of a small loan to establish his business and for it’s progress. You better know bank loans are not so easy, and the tension to repay it without any extra earning demoralize him and misbalance his confidence, more severe in a condition when there is no other source of income.
Only those people can think and perform better or at least can be expected to think and perform better who is free from his daily appetite need. Who is able to repay his loan through some other source of income? Or else the loan payee would only fulfill his appetite through bank loan and Govt. would also be in tension to recollect the loan amount. The purpose for which a lone was provided shall never solve. The loans are helpful for development and not to fulfill the basic necessities. A Basic ground should at least be available, should have been prepared. And my new system provides that basic ground.
The problem with the private and public sector is that they do not want to handle or employee such a large number of workers. They would not want to maintain such a large workforce. They shall be like a burden for them. The problems of unions, fund and pension maintenance, court or legal tension, because of these problems they would like to employee less workers. To resolve this problem a little changes can be made in labour act. If this new system is opted a worker can be removed from his service after a proper notice and suitable margin period and compensation legally. As there would not be any scarcity of employment he can easily got some new job. This option can also be operated in Govt. jobs, which shall increase the efficiency of a Govt. employee.
The main problem which a government can face is that they have to look after the benefits of twice of the current strength of employees. In such a manner there would be double govt. burden. This shall also increase bureaucracy. A Govt. has to bear the entire life’s responsibility of these new recruits, if he follows same rules and regulation. What I feel, if Govt. adopts this new system they have also to change their old regulations and that should be at par with the regulation adopted for private sectors. There should be a fear within Govt. employees that in case of a bad-worker their services can also be lost. The Govt. is not responsible for the entire life of his employee. To ensure this a Govt. can adopt this policy that on the basis of annual confidential report (ACR) 1% of employee in every organization shall be terminated or voluntary retired every year if their marks are lowest of the organisation’s other employees during entire their service. Thus the pattern of ACR should also be changed and based on 100 marks instead of 10 marks. This shall increase efficiency in Govt. services and can be opted in current scenario also. In the new system when there would not be any scarcity of jobs, when number of employment shall be more than employees, a person can easily get the job and any suspension/termination shall not affect very adversely to an employee. The Govt. will also have not to bear the burden of such inefficient employees, which will consecutively improve the work efficiency in Govt. offices. I am not elaborating the procedure here as the same is not subject.
In this condition when an employee is removed from his services, he may remain unemployed for a certain period. Just to ensure welfare of his family an insurance policy may be introduced under which an employee who has worked in a firm for 3 years and paid his insurance installments shall be eligible to get an emolument for 3-6 months in case of lost of his service. Such insurance policy shall also be beneficial for the workers working in private sector even in current scenario, where there is job uncertainty.
One another question can be raised that new system shall increase corruption among low paid employees. In this regard I feel corruption is result of lapses on part of administration, it is due to lack of morality within human, it’s a tendency and can not be curved without strict administration and transparency. In current scenario when Govt. is paying good salary to his employees, can he assure that there is no corruption? Money is a hunger, it’s a thirst and shall not extinguish until there would be chances alive for it’s earning.
I feel except a few technical works, all other works can easily be handled by a graduate to metric passed person if adopted symmetrically. So we need excess work force only for the technical works. A question can be raised when in current scenario there is not sufficient technical staff available, then how can we cope up with the scarcity of skilled labour in new system. The answer is that if there would be opportunity, there would not be scarcity for such staff as the graduates shall automatically equipped themselves if private sectors would have been freed for technical education.
The main problem which a Govt. can conceive may be of pensionary benefits. The expenses may rise to double and Govt. may not prefer to opt for this new system. In this regard I feel pensionary benefits should stop and even in current system it has been stopped and NPS is nowadays in vogue. I have already said that a few employees are getting hefty salaries are also getting all other Govt. benefits. An employee can arrange for himself if they are getting a salary and other benefits may be curved by Govt. for all other billions of it’s citizen, who are deprived off with Govt. benefits and scheme throughout their life.
Old age is same for everyone. It had similar adverse effect for one and all. There would be disease, weakness and inefficiency in every human. Hence I feel a Govt. should have to keep vigil on for every senior citizen as per their old age need. We can not expect work and efficiency from a person of above sixty. And when there is no job for the age group of 20 to 60, it is useless to talk about for the job of these senior citizens. Hence a Govt. is responsible for each and every senior citizen and not only for his employees. Govt. employees are being paid for their work. Hence the Govt. can abolish pension system for his employees and can distribute a minimum pension to all the senior citizens. As per census of 2001 the no. of people above 60 are 7.75 crores. Central govt. is spending Rs. 16000/- cr. For 33 lakhs employee and state governments are spending Rs. 28483/- cr. For 73.6 lakhs employees on pension. Total expenditure on pension of only 96 lakhs employees are 45000/- crores. Where as if a Govt. provides Rs. 1000/- to each individual then total annual budget on this account shall reach at Rs. 90000/- crores. Govt. is already spending 45ooo/- cr. And hardly a cr. Employees are getting benefited and if he can arrange another 45000/- rupees. Almost 7.75 cr. People would be benefited. Now it’s upto you which one is more beneficial. Rs. 1000/- a month may be considered a meager amount but it shall reach to the real needy. And an old person would at least be able to spend his life a little easier. It’s ironic that a person at the age of 60 is struggling for his day to day meal. In a age when a person should got relief, is bound to work and number of such Sr. citizens are 2.45 crores, out of which 67 lakhs people are above 70. If a minimum pension can be arranged for the sr. citizens, not only they would got relief but also the jobs occupied by them can be converted for the young ones.
I would also recommend that after the age of 60 the sr. citizens may move to the village or jungles as they used to do in ancient Vedic era, as their necessities would be very limited and if any still exist they would not be able to fulfill in this age. This tendency would reduce the burden on cities, they shall get the company of similar old people and villages can utilize their experiences and knowledge for it’s development. The suitable Medicare could be conveyed to every village so that at least at the end of their life a large no of sr. citizens would be burden free and happy.
One problem which the cities can face is excessive burden on them. It is considered that the number of cities which would have more that one lakh population may increase to 300 and Govt. has to manage these cities. But I feel it would be easier to provide facility in a limited area instead of to spread it all over India and there would not be problem as severe as it is considered.
I know the govt. may have to face a lot of burden and pain as Govt. machinery is static. It’s own rules and regulations have entangled it. And as always there is no gain without pain. It would therefore be beneficial if Govt. can implement this system in private sector first and then in public sector.
If any how you find it difficult to opt for higher services in lack of skilled labour/ people or because of some other reasons, it can easily be adopted in labour sector. India has a lot of unemployed, illiterate labour class. At lower standard where labour classes are involved and where unemployment is maximum this system can easily be adopted. This system is most suitable for them in factories. It will help them to earn some money, which will increase their living standard and subsequently their literacy rate. This system will also help to increase small scale industries and It will impact very widely in growth of economy.
The eight hour working system is perfect for a society as it engage it’s citizens entire day and hence they would not be able to indulge themselves in any other activity against to state. But this scenario is perfect for the country where there is no unemployment. In a country where approximately 10 cr. people are unemployed they would certainly indulge themselves in some notorious activity. It is therefore very important to tide them within the burden of responsibility so as they could not go against the state. “Unka pet bharta rahe jis se wo baagi na ho jaye, aur unka pet bhara bhee na rahe jisse wo baagi hone ko soach saken.”
At last I would like to summaries in a few more words that this is not the matter of statistics but to understand the system. As a formula I have just divided the working hours in two shifts of 6 hours. This will help to a large number of population to get a regular salary. Unemployment will reduce and more and more people can sleep with full stomach. Remaining period a person can spend for his interests, small scale industry, arts & cultural activities as amateur. There are some awkward jobs as police services, call centers; services at malls and many more where employed are over exhausted. This system will certainly reduce their woes. When Karl Marx opposed the system of 12 to 16 working hours, he was condemned, but later we accepted his recommendations. Now a days in a new circumstances when people are involved in so many activities beside their job as internet, banking, traveling, insurance, Medicare etc. etc., he needs some free time for development of human relation so as social engineering can be nurtured. When a large population is sit idle we need to utilize it’s skill to avoid terrorism and lawlessness,
As connecting rivers is a solution for water problem, division of working hours in two segments may prove a solution for unemployment. The subjected can be debated to get the real outcome.
(From the book “Steps)