Society is a group of living being who follow some minimum common rules of the group.
Well what kind of a society should we have? What sort of freedom or relaxation should we provide there to the individual? What kind of a social structure do we wish to form regarding men and women?
We have example of two categories of societies with reference to Nature or God. But we can build five types of societies in terms of men and women. Now let us discuss about the first two types of societies that can be established.
This kind of society was in existence from the very beginning when we were ruled by divine power, we were under the monarchy of God or we were uncivilized. This kind of society refers to Nature’s law and this Natural Law is based on the law of “survival of the fittest”, on the motto of “Might is right”. The powerful will be able to enjoy all the wealth. In that case if you kill, rape or enslave somebody, everything is right and the same is also true if you are a victim of similar atrocities. A society without a ruler, an autocratic society, a society that belongs to the animals now a days. It implies to the same society when we were uncivilized. In this society both animal and man were equal. Later man became powerful and established a separate society for himself and yoked the animals. We got rid of this kind of society based on the doctrine of divine values and going against them we set up different rules for ourselves. We do not long for the natural society based on divine rules. We have seen that society and we have freed ourselves from that kind of society. This kind of society has been named “uncivilized”. We do not wish to go back there. In reality the persons who were considered great, who heralded the religion – the prophets, the saints, the so called human Gods or son of Gods, In fact they were the first people who provoked us to go against the law of the nature, the law of the god or divine law or in fact against the God. In the very beginning, they themselves defied the divine laws and propelled us to revolt against God. However they did this in the name of God so we did not understand it because the explanations given by them were beneficial for us . Therefore having made them great we rebelled against God in his name only.
This kind of society is formed by applying his intellect and learning lesson from his experiences and mistake man has made in the past. When civilization came into being, some changes were made and many things were improved too. In this society man separated himself from animals and brutes got dependent on the wishes of human beings. At this hour having gone against the natural laws he made some rules according to his necessities. Actually the precursors of this type of society were the religious teachers and it’s reformers.
Various types of societies can be formed in this man-made society and different types of governance and rulers can be deputed.
1-Monarchy- We have already experienced the good and bad things of this type of society. Initially having been out of the jungle we chose this kind of governance for ourselves. In this king was the ultimate authority. In this governance if the ruler is good, the society will be nice as well. But if the head of the State is notorious, the society has to bear the heat. We have experienced and know the pros and cons of this society and have rejected it.
2-Feudalism or governance by a few chosen people-We might not have much experience of this kind of governance in India directly, but it was very popular under the aegis of Monarchy and people are aware of it well. It had even more bad elements than the monarchy. Communism falls in this category but the best part of it is that its leaders are chosen from the general mass. In a way or the other Communism is a much restrained form of Democracy or an amalgamation of Feudalism, Monarchy and Democracy.
3-Democracy-This is the third type of physical governance where subjects choose their ruler themselves. This governance provides equal rights to all. The rich or the poor, the powerful or the weak, the boy or the girl all are treated equally. This society runs on majority of votes. It follows the rules that provide happiness to the majority of people. This type of governance is only about a few hundred years old. The proprietors are not the preachers of religion. They are the people of a new generation with some novel thoughts. They include the philosophers like Rousseau, John Lock, Aristotle and many others, but we never recognize them, do not worship them, even we do not know about them. Experimentation with this is going on and it has succeeded sure enough. We are subjects to this type of government. As I have mentioned above there can be five types of society regarding men & women in this government. Now let us discuss about them.
- The Male- dominated society
- The Female- dominated society
- The Egalitarian society
- The Male dominated society in which the female should also have almost equal rights like the male. It may be 90 to 95 % if not 100%.
- The Female dominated society in which the male should have almost equal rights like the female as defined above.
Now the animals can be allowed in the society, but they cannot be offered any right. If they wish to live in the society created by human beings, they have to live obeying human beings. Whatever rights are offered to them, they would have to stay with those only. This is because we can understand their necessity and wishes with our point of view only. They can neither express themselves nor govern a human society. So I have not mentioned the animal- dominated society.
Now let us talk about the different kinds of societies.
1-The Male- dominated society-This society came into existance with the upsurge of Civilization or after the freedom from Nature’s law. It had been instrumental in bringing about an end to the Natural society. This only paved the way for the liberation from Natural society. We are being ruled by this society till date. We have not been able to extricate ourselves from this kind of governance. In near future also there is no possibility of freedom from this kind of society. However it is because of the males only that females and animals are capable of enjoying most of their rights and are treated respectfully too. Now they also can lead a blissful life while staying in this kind of society. The percentage of the independence and rights for these people are distinctive in various places and in different societies. For example in Western societies women have been offered more rights than the Muslim societies. Muslim women enjoy the least rights. Indian society has taken the middle way but is torn between the conflicts of which path to be followed. But finally it seems to be more oriented towards the Western society that benefits the female and the brute. The intellectuals support it vigorously. Despite being disadvantageous for the men-folk and remaining more judgmental about right and wrong it seems to be more appropriate for the changing times. So I also advocate this type of society.
Male- dominated society refers to the society where laws are made according to the wishes of the men-folk. In this situation the society is formed by the man who is most powerful. In that case men become very powerful and starts exploiting woman. The woman has to seek favor from man and can never indulge in her own wishes.
Even in this society all men are not of same mentality or equal mental ability.
Thus today we have left monarchy and feudalism and are proceeding towards socialism where the powerful and the weak are treated in an equal manner. The weaker section has unified themselves and became powerful in the form of society. Now the dominating section has to bow down in front of this united group of weaker section namely “society” . This society of weak people now emphasize with the pain of even more weaker group that is women and realize that the women who are even more unprotected than them should also not be exploited any more. So it has always got a wish to offer more and more civil rights to the women so that they can progress on the path of prosperity. It is true that man has loved woman more than anything. He has respected her, loved her, protected her and guided her in each and every field, but their exploitation in the same society is also a truth, is also a flip side of the society. This scenario can never be denied. People are raising their voices against this kind of society. Most of the people do not like such societies. The Western has come out of that conventional society and started campaigning for Egalitarian society where women also can get their equal rights. Indians are also looking forward in the same direction hopefully. As they are developing and are getting highly educated, they are showing their belief in developing an egalitarian society. They have started tried to crush the fact on the basis of right or wrong and this is the way a society is recognized as developed society.
Whatever be the case how has this Male –dominated society come into existence and what are its possibilities?
Women and some men too have blamed the males that they have tortured and suppressed women. But, is it hundred percent true? In reality men have never done so with that perspective. Men have always tried to protect women and have sacrificed their own lives to provide security to women. In the ancient times when the people or State was attacked either by animals, by other people or folk or other States or kingship, men took the responsibility themselves and saved the women from the clutches of the enemies. At that time they did not talk about equality and cared for them and their children even sacrificing their lives. They became the frontrunner, at that time they didn’t keep them in forefront. They kept them out of danger and sheltered them inside the house. Thus gradually the women became locked inside the house. During this period women didn’t took this responsibility and fought but became dependent solely on men. Men looked after the whole family and took care of its safety and security. Women did not fought with the external threats for the security of the family nor they asked for equality at that time and gradually it has become the sole responsibility of the men. Men managed the outer world whereas women presided over the home. Thus they co-operated and complemented each other. This was the main reasons behind the formation of Male-dominated society. They did not enslave women forcefully. It was their sacrifice, dutifulness and struggle towards the safety and security of their families that let them rule the society, not the exploitation of the women that propelled them to exercise their power.
Things changed slowly and slowly. Religion played a great role and a few social stigmas were also there. Some people really exploited women and there were other reasons too that led women to live in the enclosure of
the four walls of the house.
As our society is more safe and secure today, a demand for equal women rights have arisen. It is men’s ardent love for women that has driven men to offer more and more rights to them. But if in reality such a society come into the form where men and women are treated equally, women have also to share the responsibility of safety and security of the family from the attacks of external threatening. They have to earn for the family as well. Unless this is accomplished, women cannot expect complete independence. They will have to depend on men partially. We can only try our best to save them from exploitation. We can make it this much sure that they can explore their freedom, enjoy their maximum rights like men as citizens and can develop themselves to the max. But this also depends on men’s will. Till then we have to live in the Male –dominated society.
2-The Female-dominated society-This form of society can be found very few in the whole world. Man is powerful, so it cannot be expected that he is being exploited in this type of society. Hardly have we come across the cases of exploitation of men by women or it is negligent in comparison to men Vs Women. The most important thing for this kind of society is the women’s control over the finance. They must be self-sufficient and they have to bear the expenditure. Without this we cannot imagine about this kind of society. Nonetheless the conditions are just reverse. Man only handles the finance and it is not possible to transfer it to women so soon. Men-folk who have struggled hard for decades to get the control over it will be least bothered to hand over it to women. Surely, they have started to offer freedom to women and now it depends on their potentiality and efforts how and to what extent they can succeed to get control over finance. This can only pave the way for their independence and future.
The structure of a society depends on the fact who has control over finance. This is because of the power that is generated by the conglomeration of different amenities, objects and resources acquired by money. As the money is virtual representative of various objects, resources & amenities and it’s abundance collectively represents power or supremacy. Thus the more the money is , more are the opportunities of development and accumulation of wealth culminating into power. As long as men have got the control over finance the society will be governed by men. We can only expect them to give more and more rights, more percentage of rights or even equal rights to women. It is the man who is to determine this percentage. This is because of the Law of Nature that determines the principle of the survival of the fittest (or might is right and in the words of Karl Marx “we cannot go beyond Nature’s law, it always reflects in our work with a face change”. If ever women get the control over finance, they can also rule over the world. But they have to work hard for this. However, we are moving towards in that direction. We have increased and increasing our workload so much that we can never do it alone and certainly require women support. Despite working desperately for decades if men become good-for-nothing with all women working and being able to earn their livelihood, then only a Female-dominated society can be formed. However it seems to be impossible in near future or even within thousand years. If it happens, we will ponder over it. Presently formation of this kind of society is out of the question.
3-Egalitarian society-This kind of society deals with the equal rights of men and women and this seems to be a long way. Thus the Nature’s law is represented once more that refers to it’s eternal rule of might is right. This kind of society can be made up with the consent of men only. The western countries have tried their best to put this idea into practice to a great extent, yet till date the Western society is a man dominating society.
Nature itself has created two different creatures named man and woman. Even in the world of animals females are dominated by males. It is God who himself has created male and female two different species and has given an upper hand to the male. We are discussing these issues of making different societies as we are not completely agreed of the divine rules. Society can shout about the discriminations made between man and woman, but we know it well that naturally they are different. Though they definitely complement each other. Their physical constitution is different, there is a difference between their physical and mental strength. Thus at some nick of point the question will arise, who will take the ultimate decision, how the society will be governed and how family, its smallest unit will be guided and governed. One thing is very important to note that who will be the final authority to govern a society or a family. Who will be the head of the family? Man is powerful, so he will not leave his position. Then man will hold the primary position and who can dare to prevent him from doing so? Now isn’t it also fair to do so as he only has shared the burden of responsibilities of his family and has saved it from external attacks? So society or family will probably remain male-dominated. But we know it well that there is not much difference between a man and a woman. Therefore women also should be offered almost maximum rights or a little bit lesser than a man is offered. If women wish to get the primary position, they have to take above responsibilities as well. However till date we couldn’t find such examples and it doesn’t seem cup of women’s tea. So we must have to choose a leader at least. So this type of society cannot be formed.
Well man can be convinced that he should accept the right thing discarding the wrong. Women can get a larger share of their rights through the criteria of this right and wrong . A man can never appreciate being treated wrongly or getting tortured physically or mentally. If it is so, why do they tolerate injustice with women? This is the criterion that can determine the destiny of a society. It can also assure us of the limit of relaxation or freedom women can enjoy in a male-dominated society. This is possible as a woman plays the role of a mother, daughter and wife at the same time for the male. He cannot survive without them. This relationship inspires him to accommodate the troubles or the issues faced by women. He can emphasise with their problems. So the society that advocates women’s liberation and development more and more is regarded and will be counted as the most fair, beneficial, progressive and developed society.
After so much discussion you have to decide about what kind of society
we should have. Should it be an Egalitarian society ? Should it be a society with equal rights for every one with the strong hold of men-folk or women folk or will it be totally Male–dominated or female dominated? Though we talk a lot about the first option, i.e Egalitarian society, it seems that it would not be completely feasible. The second option is more prevalent in the current scenario and will be the same in near future, even if it is in vogue in western countries.
To conclude we can say that among the five types of societies mentioned above, unless and until women become more powerful than men and have complete control over finance, they cannot rule over the society and neither a Female- dominated society can be formed. Now a society can be developed which would be Male -dominated but would give freedom to women in abundance. Moreover we have moved ahead a lot towards this direction.
(From the book – Steps)